I love to say that Python is a nice subset of Lisp, and I discover that it's getting even more true as time passes. Recently, I've stumbled upon the PEP 443 that describes a way to dispatch generic functions, in a way that looks like what CLOS, the Common Lisp Object System, provides.

What are generic functions

If you come from the Lisp world, this won't be something new to you. The Lisp object system provides a really good way to define and handle method dispatching. It's a base of the Common Lisp object system. For my own pleasure to see Lisp code in a Python post, I'll show you how generic methods work in Lisp first.

To begin, let's define a few very simple classes.

(defclass snare-drum ()

(defclass cymbal ()

(defclass stick ()

(defclass brushes ()

This defines a few classes: snare-drum, symbal, stick and brushes, without any parent class nor attribute. These classes compose a drum kit, and we can combine them to play sound. So we define a play method that takes two arguments, and returns a sound (as a string).

(defgeneric play (instrument accessory)
  (:documentation "Play sound with instrument and accessory."))

This only defines a generic method: it has no body, and cannot be called with any instance yet. At this stage, we only inform the object system that the method is generic and can be then implemented with various type of arguments. We'll start by implementing versions of this method that knows how to play with the snare-drum.

(defmethod play ((instrument snare-drum) (accessory stick))

(defmethod play ((instrument snare-drum) (accessory brushes))

Now we just defined concrete methods with code. They also takes two arguments: instrument which is an instance of snare-drum and accessory that is an instance of stick or brushes.

At this stage, you should note the first difference with object system as built into language like Python: the method isn't tied to any class in particular. The methods are generic, and any class can implement them, or not.

Let's try it.

* (play (make-instance 'snare-drum) (make-instance 'stick))

* (play (make-instance 'snare-drum) (make-instance 'brushes))

* (play (make-instance 'cymbal) (make-instance 'stick))
debugger invoked on a SIMPLE-ERROR in thread
#<THREAD "main thread" RUNNING {1002ADAF23}>:
  There is no applicable method for the generic function
  when called with arguments
    (#<CYMBAL {1002B801D3}> #<STICK {1002B82763}>).

Type HELP for debugger help, or (SB-EXT:EXIT) to exit from SBCL.

restarts (invokable by number or by possibly-abbreviated name):
  0: [RETRY] Retry calling the generic function.
  1: [ABORT] Exit debugger, returning to top level.

((:METHOD NO-APPLICABLE-METHOD (T)) #<STANDARD-GENERIC-FUNCTION PLAY (2)> #<CYMBAL {1002B801D3}> #<STICK {1002B82763}>) [fast-method]

As you see, the function called depends on the class of the arguments. The object systems dispatch the function calls to the right function for us, depending on the arguments classes. If we call play with instances that are not know to the object system, an error will be thrown.

Inheritance is also supported and the equivalent (but more powerful and less error prone) equivalent of Python's super() is available via (call-next-method).

(defclass snare-drum () ())
(defclass cymbal () ())

(defclass accessory () ())
(defclass stick (accessory) ())
(defclass brushes (accessory) ())

(defmethod play ((c cymbal) (a accessory))

(defmethod play ((c cymbal) (b brushes))
  (concatenate 'string "SSHHHH!" (call-next-method)))

In this example, we define the stick and brushes classes as subclass of the accessory class. The play method defined will return the sound BIIING! regardless of the accessory instance that is used to play the cymbal. Except in the case where it's a brushes instance; only the most precise method is always called. The (call-next-method) function is used to call the closest parent method, in this case that would be the method returning _"BIIING!".

* (play (make-instance 'cymbal) (make-instance 'stick))

* (play (make-instance 'cymbal) (make-instance 'brushes))

Note that CLOS is also able to dispatch on object instances themself by using the eql specializer.

But if you're really curious about all features CLOS provides, I suggest you read the brief guide to CLOS by Jeff Dalton as a starter.

Python implementation

Python implements a simpler equivalence of this workflow with the singledispatch function. It will be provided with Python 3.4 as part of the functools module. Here's a rough equivalence of the above Lisp program.

import functools

class SnareDrum(object): pass
class Cymbal(object): pass
class Stick(object): pass
class Brushes(object): pass

def play(instrument, accessory):
    raise NotImplementedError("Cannot play these")

def _(instrument, accessory):
    if isinstance(accessory, Stick):
        return "POC!"
    if isinstance(accessory, Brushes):
        return "SHHHH!"
    raise NotImplementedError("Cannot play these")

We define our four classes, and a base play function that raises NotImplementedError, indicating that by default we don't know what to do. We can then write specialized version of this function with a first instrument, the SnareDrum. We then check for the accessory type that we get, and return the appropriate sound or raise NotImplementedError again if we don't know what to do with it.

If we run it, it works as expected:

>>> play(SnareDrum(), Stick())
>>> play(SnareDrum(), Brushes())
>>> play(Cymbal(), Brushes())
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "/home/jd/Source/cpython/Lib/functools.py", line 562, in wrapper
    return dispatch(args[0].__class__)(*args, **kw)
  File "/home/jd/sd.py", line 10, in play
    raise NotImplementedError("Cannot play these")
NotImplementedError: Cannot play these
>>> play(SnareDrum(), Cymbal())
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "/home/jd/Source/cpython/Lib/functools.py", line 562, in wrapper
    return dispatch(args[0].__class__)(*args, **kw)
  File "/home/jd/sd.py", line 18, in _
    raise NotImplementedError("Cannot play these")
NotImplementedError: Cannot play these

The singledispatch module looks through the classes of the first argument passed to the play function, and calls the right version of it. The first defined version of the play function is always run for the object class, so if our instrument is a class that we did not register for, this base function will be called.

For whose eager to try and use it, the singledispatch function is provided Python 2.6 to 3.3 through the Python Package Index.


First, as you noticed in the Lisp version, CLOS provides a multiple dispatcher that can dispatch on the type of any of the argument defined in the method prototype, not only the first one. Unfortunately, Python dispatcher is named singledispatch for this good reason: it only knows to dispatch on the first argument. Guido van Rossum wrote a short article about the subject that he called multimethod a few years ago.

Then, there's no way to call the parent function directly. There's no equivalent of the (call-next-method) from Lisp nor the super() function that allows to do that in Python class system. This means you will have to use various trick to bypass this limitation.

So while I am really glad that Python is going toward that direction, as it's a really powerful way to enhance an object system, it really lacks a lot of more advanced features that CLOS provides out of the box.

Though, improving this could be an interesting challenge. Especially to bring more CLOS power to Hy. :-)